Certainty or Doubt; A Comparative Study

Volume.2, No.1, Spring & Summer 2016

 

Ali Mesbah / Associate Professor, IKI

Received: 2016/04/10 - Accepted: 2016/07/30

Abstract

 “Skepticism” supposes uncertainty to be the unavoidable destiny of human being. Some roots of modern skepticism can be found in the teachings of the Old Testament, as well as the falsification of some of the teachings of the Bible by rational arguments and scientific discoveries, and some political evolutions in Europe from 14th to 16th centuries, later called “Renaissance”. They led to a belief in the opposition between religion and science and between reason and revelation. By losing confidence in intellect and sense perception, a new tide of modern skepticism and relativism revived. Still some others maintained that reality differently manifests itself to different people; therefore, they do not believe in any common factor among human beings.                                    
The article argues that Islam, as a school of thought and practice, provides us with a special view of the world, and introduces a specific goal for the creation of the world and the human being. According to Islam, the final aim of human creation is to reach one’s voluntary perfection and beatitude, which is based on knowledge. Islam has a great respect for reason and reserves a high position for intellect, while taking its limitations into consideration too.

Key words: Skepticism, Knowledge, Certainty, Islam, Western Philosophy, Christianity, Human perfection